Cancer is a wide term for a group of diseases that can begin in nearly any organ or area of the body and spread to other parts when abnormal cells become damaged, cross their bounds, and attack other areas of the body.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, responsible for 9.6 million deaths in 2018, or one out of every six deaths. Men’s cancers include lung, colorectal, stomach, prostate, and liver cancer, while women’s cancers contain breast, colorectal, lung, cervical, and thyroid cancer.
Globally, the cancer trouble is increasing, putting brutal physical, emotional, and financial strain on people, families, communities, and health systems. a lot of healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries are unable of managing this burden, and so many cancer patients all around the world need punctual access to the maximum diagnosis and treatment.
Cancer is the world’s leading cause of death, with nearly 10 million deaths expected by 2020. (1). In form of current cases of cancer in 2020, the below have been the most common:
- breast (2.26 million cases);
- lung (2.21 million cases);
- colon and rectum (1.93 million cases);
- prostate (1.41 million cases);
- skin (non-melanoma) (1.20 million cases); and
- stomach (1.09 million cases).
The most common causes of cancer death in 2020 were:
- lung (1.80 million deaths);
- colon and rectum (935 000 deaths);
- liver (830 000 deaths);
- stomach (769 000 deaths); and
- breast (685 000 deaths).
Risk factors for cancers
Tobacco use, alcohol drinking, poor nutrition, exercise, and air pollution are all cancer’s possible causes (and other non-communicable diseases).
Some types of bacteria periodontitis are cancer possible causes, and this is a major issue in low – and – middle countries. In 2018, carcinogenic diseases like Helicobacter pylori, papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with roughly 13% of cancers reported worldwide. (3).
Hepatitis B and C viruses, and also some types of HPV, are all linked to an increased risk of liver and cervical cancer. Hiv infection substantially increases the risk of cancers such as ovarian cancer.
Preventing cancer: Cancer risk can be reduced by:
If key risk factors were changed or disregarded, and current real proof preventive methods are followed, approximately 30 and 50 percent of cancer deaths may be prevented. Early cancer diagnosis and clinical practice can also help to reduce the disease burden. In the long run, preventative care is by far the most cost-effective approach to cancer control.
If key risk factors were changed or ignored, and existing evidence-based prevention methods were followed, between 30 and 50 percent of cancer deaths may be prevented. Timely cancer detection and patient management also can help to reduce the cancer burden. In the long run, preventive medicine is the most expensive method of cancer prevention and control.
The main objective is either to cure diseases or substantially extend life. One of the main objectives is to improve the patient’s quality of life. Support for the person’s health, psychological, and spiritual well-being, as well as pain management in the advanced stages of the disease, can all help to this goal.
Breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer, and colorectal cancer, for example, all have high cure rates when detected early and treated correctly.
Certain diseases, such as testicular seminoma and other types of leukemia and lymphoma in kids, show good treatment efficacy even when cancerous cells are present in other areas of the body if appropriate treatment is provided.
Data analysis: Cases and deaths by continents and countries
First, we evaluated changes from 2018 to 2020 for the 14 most commonly prescribed types globally in form of current cases and deaths. The prevalence and death of cancers also were examined on 6 continents and in specific countries, with a maximum number of cases per area.
The raw and ASMRs, and the raw and ASIRs, have been used to rank the disease burden of the listed countries above. The estimated numbers of new cases and deaths for most common types of cancer also were calculated especially for China for the years 2015 and 2020.
We calculated China’s percentage of new deaths worldwide by averaging the death rates of the 10 leading most common types of cancer in China by sex. Lastly, using predicted cancer death rates from 2020 to 2040, the prospective prevalence of the disease was estimated.
Cases and deaths by continents and countries:
Figure 1 shows the prevalence of 19.3 million new cases in the year 2020, while Table 2 shows the spread of an estimated 10 million cancer deaths. The sector accounts for roughly half of all new cases and 58 percent of any and all cancer cases, with Europe responsible for 23 percent of new cases and 20 percent of new deaths, correspondingly.
13 percent of new cases originated in North America. Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and North America all had around the same proportion of fatalities as that of the rest of the world (7 percent). Oceania had the highest ASIR (404.6 per 100,000), North America Is Expected (360.7 per 100,000), and Europe (285.2 per 100,000).
Table 1 – Estimated incidence of all cancer types for six continents in 2020.
|Continents||Number of new cases||Crude incidence rates (per 100,000)||Rank||Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000)||Rank|
|Republic of Korea||230,317||449.2||42||242.7||44|
|United States of America||2,281,658||689.3||12||362.2||4|
|Latin America and the Caribbean||1,470,274||224.8||–||186.5||–|
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